The biggest Jewish community in the whole world after New York was round-up into an area of 2,6 square kilometers together with other Jews, the so-called Warsaw Ghetto. The biggest ghetto in the whole Nazi-occupied Europe.
In the map above you see the Ghetto of Warsaw which was separated into the small Ghetto and on the top, the Big Ghetto. The two parts of Warsaw Ghetto were connected by a wooden bridge at Chłodna Street which was called: «The Bridge of Sights».
On the map, you also see the: «Umschlagplatz memorial», just on the highest top side of the map, above the POLIN Museum, which is dedicated to the History of the Polish Jews.
From the Umschlagplatz, the Jews were taken for their last trip to Treblinka Death Camp where they were gassed to death and buried in the open space. There might be not much to see from the Ghetto in Warsaw, but the History, Memory, and Heroes will live forever in the capital of Poland!
On the eve of the war, before September 1939, Jews (numbering roughly 370,000), made up about a third of the population of Warsaw. Two worlds co-existed in one city, Polish and Jewish, differing in their religion, dress, language, and customs.
Jews lived all over Warsaw, but the majority resided in the area of Gęsia, Świętojerska, and Nalewki streets. This was the German occupier's logic for setting up a closed quarter in this neighborhood, the largest ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe.
The life of the Warsaw Ghetto is known through archival photographs taken during the Holocaust. The related exhibition can be found at Grzybowski Square in Warsaw.
Warsaw Ghetto Exhibition
In November 1940, Grzybowski Square was part of the Warsaw Ghetto, and a wall separated the area from the non-Jewish side. In March 1941, the area of the Ghetto was reduced by setting its border along the eastern side of the square.
Most photographs of the Warsaw Ghetto were taken by German soldiers for propaganda purposes or simply out of curiosity. But also a number of photos taken by Poles or Jews (at risk of the death penalty).
The surviving pictures provide a glance of a world that no longer exists. Let's dare to look beyond the frames, at ruins as proof of the city's resistance, and to recognize the heroism and dignity of the figures involved.
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The German attack on Poland in 1939 marked the beginning of hell for the country's Jews but also for many Poles. In Warsaw, restrictions were introduced immediately following the capitulation of the city.
From the first moment, the Germans captured Warsaw they began concentrating and isolating the city's Jews. The official reason was that it was necessary to protect the other residents from a typhus epidemic.
Construction of ghetto wall - corner Grzybowska-Graniczna streets
March 1940 saw anti-Jewish rioting (the Easter Pogrom), probably inspired by the Germans. This provided yet another propaganda argument in favor of creating a closed Jewish quarter, to protect the Jews from Polish violence.
Easter Pogrom was a series of attacks against the Jewish populations of Warsaw and Kraków, between 22 and 30 March 1940. Provoked by a claim of a murder of a child who had stolen from the Jews.
Despite the appeal from Polish underground organizations for calm, about 500 persons participated in the riots, including activists and sympathizers of the Polish collaborationist, pro-Nazi National Radical Organization (NOR).
NOR's activists used the slogan: «Long live Poland without Jews». The Warsaw ghetto was set up in what was known as the Northern District, a predominantly Jewish neighborhood.
The division of the city into a Polish and Jewish part entailed compulsory removals. 138,000 Jews and 113,000 Poles had to move. On the "Aryan" side, the Germans took over 4000 Jewish shops and around 600 workshops.
Finally, the Warsaw ghetto was officially closed on November 16, 1940. The area became a prison, surrounded by three-meter-tall brick walls topped with glass shards.
People could only go in and out if they had a pass (a yellow one with a blue stripe for Jews). Those who left the ghetto without permission faced the death penalty.
Jews lost their social insurance, they could no longer get treatment in hospitals, their food rations were reduced, their movements curtailed, and they were barred from all kinds of public areas.
Persecuted and suffering constant humiliation, they had no right to feel human. The obligation to wear an armband with a Star of David on their right arm was an additional stigma and sign of control.
Jews during Labor
Jewish companies were shut down. Those that survived were placed under the German administration, leading to growing unemployment.
Real estates belonged to Jewish people were seized, bank accounts and deposits got frozen, and limits were set on the amount of cash they could have.
Their property was plundered by German officials and private individuals and the Jewish men were subject to forced labor officially two days a week but unofficially without limits.
Treated as slaves, Jews were used for hard, often pointless, and humiliating work.
Administration and Control
The ghetto was administered by the Jewish Council (Judenrat) which acted as an intermediary between the occupiers and the civilian population. The Judenrat was not a partner for the Germans, but rather a hostage forced to implement their orders.
The Jewish Council's duties included collecting fines and contributions, ensuring public order, overseeing food deliveries, combating smuggling, organizing forced labor contingents, looking after Jews resettled to the Warsaw ghetto, and providing food aid and healthcare.
The German administration, SS, and Gestapo continually fought for control and influence over the Judenrat because of the immense profits that could be reaped from exploiting the ghetto.
The Jews despised the council, accusing its members of abuses, corruption, and over compliance with German demands.
During the Great Action, the Germans expected the Judenrat to take an active part in organizing the resettlement operation (in reality: deportations to the extermination camp at Treblinka).
However, the chairman of the council, Adam Czerniaków, refused to sign the announcement concerning the forced resettlement of Jews "to the East" and committed suicide in protest.
The document was ultimately signed with the impersonal formula "the Jewish Council".
Market at Gesia 26 Street towards Lubeckiego
Population & Entertainment
Dense housing blocks, overcrowded apartments, overflowing streets, and lack of green areas were standard in the ghetto.
It is estimated that in March 1941 the ghetto had about 460,000 residents. Between 6 to 10 people living in a single room. The situation was exacerbated by the steady influx of Jewish deportees from other parts of Mazovia, the Polish territories annexed to the Reich, and Germany itself.
Put up in provisional quarters like prayer houses or old factory buildings, the newcomers were the first to succumb to hunger and disease. Unsanitary conditions combined with overcrowding and lack of proper hygiene and healthcare led to an epidemic of typhoid fever and typhus.
It is estimated that some 100,000 people died of starvation and disease before the start of the Great Action on July 22, 1942.
People tried to escape the reality of the ghetto, so theaters enjoyed immense popularity. There were five theaters operating legally in the closed quarter at the end of 1941.
The repertoire was quite diverse, ranging from simple and banal shows to more ambitious productions. Concerts were also given by the Jewish Symphony Orchestra, whose conductors included Adam Furmafiski, Marian Neuteich, Szymon Pullman, and Izrael Hammerman.
The orchestra hired many renowned musicians and singers. Religious concerts were organized at the Ttomackie Street synagogue, featuring, among others, the famous Warsaw cantor Gerszon Sirota, commonly known as the "Jewish Caruso".
There were art cafes and cabarets. Those performing there included well-known artists such as Wtadystaw Szpilman, Wiera Gran, or Marysia Ajzensztadt, dubbed the "Ghetto Nightingale".
All kinds of lectures, meetings with authors, and exhibitions were also organized under the guise of charitable campaigns. It was an entirely different kind of music that sounded in the streets, however.
Street ensembles were accompanied by the wailing of beggars who sang to elicit pity and get alms.
Ghetto Wall at Krochmalna Street
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In January 1941, the ghetto covered about 307 hectares. It excluded Pawiak Prison, the Protestant church, and the Magistrates Court on Leszno Street.
Both Jews and Poles could access the court building which became an important communication hub, facilitating smuggling, information exchange, and escapes to the Aryan side.
The ghetto boundaries were redrawn several times, its area gradually reduced, leading to increased overcrowding.
Towards the end of October and in early November 1941, the closed quarter was divided into the "large" and "small" ghetto separated by Chłodna Street, a major traffic artery connecting the districts of Śródmieście and Wola.
A wooden bridge was erected to connect both sides of the road. The ghetto could be accessed by gates guarded on the outside by German police posts which also included officers of the pre-war Polish police (so-called "blue policemen").
On the inside, the exits were manned by the Jewish Order Service. In November 1940, there were 22 gates; four months later their number was reduced to 15.
After the Great Action - the mass deportation of Jews to the death camp at Treblinka, which began on July 22 and continued until September 21, 1942 - the ghetto shrunk to around 180 hectares.
In this new, remnant, form it became a labor camp in which production plants colloquially known as "shops" operated. After the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, the entire area was razed to the ground.
Only a few parts of the Ghetto wall and buildings left standing after the destruction, with the most famous to be the St. Augustine's Church.
Street Divided By Reserved Ghetto Wall
Survival in Warsaw Ghetto
Surviving in the closed quarter was extremely costly. Unemployment and high prices prevailed. Only a few lucky ones found employment - with the Judenrat, in the German production plants (the "shops"), or in illegal workplaces.
Wages were deplorably low and insufficient to survive on. Aside from a small group of Jewish speculators who lived in luxury, the vast majority of Jews were doomed to stagnation.
In order to purchase basic necessities, Jews in the ghetto would sell their property for next to nothing: jewelry, artworks, fur coats, books, even the simplest household items.
Street trade flourished, as did the black market, which attracted outsiders "buying up commodities". However, this did not guarantee economic stability.
Food, which cost several percent more than on the "Aryan side", consumed all of a family's budget. The ghetto residents were doomed to hunger and poverty.
After the Great Action and then the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Germans tried to loot anything of value that still remained in the abandoned houses. This brought the Third Reich gains worth almost 180 million marks.
Until July 1942, Jews took their chances of escaping to the "Aryan" side. Survival was conditional on having trusted connections, safe houses, money, "Aryan" looks, and being fluent in Polish.
Assimilated Jews, therefore, had the highest chances of survival. After the Great Action, the Council to Help Jews (codenamed Zegota), operating under the auspices of the Government Delegation for Poland, played a leading role in helping.
This underground organization provided Jews with new identities (supplying baptism certificates and Kennkarten). They also helped to find new hiding places, distributed relief payments, and food and arranged medical assistance.
Jews in hiding were not only endangered by German terror but also by demoralized Poles who exploited their human tragedy for personal gain.
Denouncers watched the ghetto walls, spotted escapees in the crowd, blackmailed them, racketeered, and sometimes denounced them to the occupiers. There were also cases of denouncement without any ulterior motive.
A Provisioning Office was set up as part of the Judenrat to bring in and distribute goods that were rationed (e.g. flour, marmalade) or subject to quotas (e.g. vegetables, fish).
However, these products could not satisfy the nutritional needs of the ghetto population, which turned to smuggle as its last resort.
Connections, money, ingenuity, and courage were needed to illegally smuggle in basic goods and smuggle out anything of value (crafts, furniture, machines, or valuables).
There was a popular saying: «The ghetto lives off Warsaw - Warsaw lives off the ghetto». Smuggling was highly profitable and involved very well organized Polish-Jewish partnerships.
In the daytime, those involved would stockpile goods at secret points close to the ghetto to be transported in at night.
Both "wholesalers", carting in goods through the gates, as well as individuals Jews working on the "Aryan" side or Poles with passes, were involved in contraband.
Children played an important role in smuggling, often becoming their family's sole breadwinners.
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Death in Ghetto
The inhuman conditions in the ghetto (deliberately produced by the Germans) were meant to bring about the gradual extermination of the Jewish population.
In addition to epidemics, lack of heating in winter, and lack of hygiene all year round, starvation was also an important direct cause of death.
Long-term malnutrition destroyed people's health and psyche, taking away their powers of rational thought. These problems were exacerbated by the arrival of tens of thousands of newcomers, resettled to the ghetto without any means of subsistence, doomed to stagnation in shelters.
There was a growing sense of loneliness and desperation among this group. An awareness of existential transience and looming death began to prevail.
This was the everyday reality of the ghetto. From the autumn of 1940 until July 1942, an average of 2535 people died every month, with only 228 births.
Families who could not afford to pay a burial tax to the German, would remove the clothes of the dead and put the bodies of their loved ones out in the street at night.
The nameless corpses would be collected by the funeral service and buried in mass graves in the Okopowa Street Jewish cemetery.
Members Jewish Order Service ul Solna
Traditional-looking orthodox Jews were the first victims of Nazi barbarity. They were subjected to sophisticated forms of violence, from insults to being forced to dance in the street or having their beards and sidelocks (which symbolize obedience to God in Judaism) cut off.
The Germans premeditatedly destroyed religious buildings and ceremonial objects. In the spring of 1941, these repressions were eased somewhat.
Synagogues were reopened, Saturday became a holiday, and the Department of Religious Affairs and the rabbinate were reactivated as part of the Jewish Council.
In practice, the sole purpose of these measures was to tighten control over the activity of religious Jews. During the Holocaust, religious faith was put to a profound test.
Just as some renounced obedience to religious precepts and no longer performed the prayers that had once set the rhythm of their day, others emphasized their religious identity by reciting the prayer Shema Yisrael! [Hear, Israel!] at the moment of death.
Deportation to Death Camp
The Great Action began on July 22 and continued until September 21, 1942. On 22 July 1942 at 10:00 A.M., under the operation Reinhardt, the head of the Action Hermann Hofle informed the president of the Jewish Council Adam Czerniaków about the "resettlement to the East".
Through propaganda, the Nazis strove to convince people to leave the city voluntarily to travel "to the East". The Jews were told that work awaited them at their destination. Promises were made that families would not be split up.
For a week, the operation was overseen by the Jewish Order Service under the command of Jakub Lejkin. Due to their low effectiveness, however, the SS along with its subordinate ethnic units took over.
A building or part of a street would be surrounded by armed units and a selection would take place. Young people, employed in the "shops", were left behind in the ghetto, now transformed into a labor camp.
Those unfit for work, including children, the elderly, and the sick, were marched off to the Umschlagplatz (German for "reloading point"), whence trains departed for the death camp at Treblinka.
A small number of people managed to bribe the guards to let them go, paying exorbitant amounts of money, or to escape.
In inhuman conditions, people would wait there to be put on transports for several hours or even days. This road was also traveled by Janusz Korczak along with his wards from the Orphans Home at 16 Sienna Street.
Jews Loaded Into Cattle Cars Umschlagplatz
Many would want to honor the figure of Dr. Yanush, the most popular children's writer in Poland, who chose to live and die for his charges at an orphanage transferred to the Warsaw Ghetto.
He had his boys and girls to the Umschlagplatz by the hand (6.8.1942), singing a song, and telling them that they would all enjoy 'the picnic'. Imagine Yanush kid's as they listened in the dark to the rhythm of the railway track on their last journey to Treblinka.
Every day of the Great Action between 5000 to 6000 (and sometimes as many as 11,000) Jews were transported out of the Warsaw ghetto on trains made up of 40 to 60 cattle cars.
As many as 150 people would be crammed into a single car. They could take only 15 kg of personal belongings with them as well as an unlimited amount of money and valuables.
In the sweltering heat, without water, standing up in cars with only a small barb-wired window to let in air, they made the last journey of their lives from Warsaw to Treblinka II extermination camp, a distance of about 100 km.
Before reaching their destination, the Polish railwaymen would be replaced by Germans. Upon arrival, the victims were immediately be sent to what were said to be bathhouses but were actually gas chambers.
Death came in less than 20 minutes. The bodies were then moved to huge mass graves. The corpses were covered with a thin layer of earth and the next round of victims piled on top.
The Jews in the Warsaw ghetto found out about the real nature of the deportations from a handful of escapees such as Zalman Frydrych, Abraham Krzepicki, and Dawid Nowodworski.
Their accounts convinced those who remained behind that armed struggle was inevitable. As a result of the Great Action, some 250,000-300,000 Jews lost their lives.
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Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943)
The determination of those who survived the Great Action led to the emergence of an armed resistance movement. The Jewish Combat Organization was led by Mordechaj Anielewicz, and the Jewish Military Union by Pawet Frenkel.
The first confrontation with the Germans occurred in January 1943. A few hundred fighters perished. A new wave of fighting erupted on April 19th.
Known as the Warsaw ghetto uprising (April 19 - May 16 of 1943), the revolt of the Jews who were forced to living in the Warsaw Ghetto just started.
The main goal of the revolt was to stop the Mass Deportation to Treblinka, but most importantly to choose the time of their death and at least die free and fighting.
Around 1500 insurgents joined the ghetto uprising at the time, facing over 2000 German SS and Wehrmacht soldiers in addition to ethnic units (Ukrainians, Latvians).
The Nazis had modern rifles, flamethrowers, guns, armored vehicles, and tanks, while the Jewish units had a small number of firearms, mostly pistols, home-made grenades, and Molotov cocktails.
The hardest battles took place in the area of Zamenhofa, Gesia, and Nalewki streets, and near Muranowski Square. Around 6000 Jews were killed in the fighting, and 7000 more perished in the houses set on fire by the Germans.
After a month of valiant fighting, the Uprising was quashed and the ghetto burned to the ground.
Those who survived were deported to the death camp at Treblinka, and to Majdanek concentration camp, but the majority, around 36,000 - to the SS labor camps at Poniatowa and Trawniki.
Only a few Jews survived, including Władysław Szpilman, the hero of the movie “The Pianist” by Roman Polanski.
The Warsaw uprising inspired also other revolts in extermination camps and ghettos around German-occupied Eastern Europe.
Two very important lessons learned from the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising which at some point influenced the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
Firstly, it stated that «some things in life are more important than life itself». A very Polish example of magnificent courage and self-sacrifice.
Secondly, the military lesson stated that if a few hundred fighters with light arms, could hold up the Nazi war machine for nearly one month, then a force forty times bigger, will achieve more extensive results.
Ruins Of Warsaw Ghetto - Karmelicka street
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Children suffered the most tragic fate of all. Orphaned or left without carers, crippled by diseases and hunger, they became a typical sight of dispair in the ghetto landscape.
Children were more eligible for illness and Poverty. To survive, they would be begging in the streets or become peddlers or smugglers.
In January 1942, there were some 80,000 children under 14 years of age in the ghetto. In October 1942, after the Great Action, their number dropped to only 7000. Very few managed to survive.
The Jewish Council and other welfare organizations made efforts to mitigate the plight of children by setting up soup kitchens, daycares, common rooms in deportee shelters, dormitories, and by organizing day camps, libraries, and children's choirs.
There were also many orphanages in the ghetto, including Janusz Korczak's Orphans' Home, whose premises were moved to the ghetto from 92 Krochmalna Street, initially to 33 Chłodna Street, and then to 16 Sienna Street.
Boy Working At Jewish Cemetery
Despite worsening conditions, the orphanage remained a place of hope and safety for its dependents.
Irena Sendler, a 29-year-old social worker, employed by the Welfare Department of the Warsaw municipality. At a great personal danger, devised means to get into the ghetto and help the dying Jews.
Irena managed to obtain a permit from the municipality that enabled her to enter the ghetto in order to inspect the sanitary conditions.
She helped smuggle Jews out of the ghetto to the Aryan side and helped set up hiding places for them.
Over time, she began helping in the organization of children’s activities and concerts in the ghetto.
Sendler, whose underground name was Jolanta, exploited her contacts with orphanages and institutes for abandoned children, to send Jewish children there. The exact number of children saved by Sendler and her partners is unknown.
On October 19, 1965, Yad Vashem recognized Irena Sendler as Righteous Among the Nations. A tree planted in her honor at the entrance to the Avenue of the Righteous Among the Nations.
There were two levels to the ghetto economy. The first, operating under licensing, included German and German-Jewish companies (known as "shops"). Some of the plants were administered by the Jewish Council.
Products were fabricated, largely for the needs of the army, in bad conditions, and for very low wages. The second level was unlicensed and mostly included home-based production.
Secret mills and bakeries operated in cellars and attics. Thread, buttons, haberdashery, detergents, and toys were also made. There were also cobbler's and tailor's shops.
Venues producing legally in the daytime would switch to "black market" production at night. Thanks to connections and bribes the craftsmen could produce goods for Polish civilians or German soldiers.
After the Great Action, the SS took over control of the remnant ghetto. There were only "shops" in operation at that point, in which Jews had to work like slaves, an average of 12 hours a day, to survive.
Train Tracks Leading To Treblinka
A food ration, usually a plate of watery soup and 180 grams of bread per day, was all the pay they received.
Most of the Jews confined in the ghetto had no way of earning a living. Welfare became of paramount importance due to the awful housing conditions, diseases, and widespread malnutrition.
There were many charitable organizations in the ghetto. In October 1940, the Jewish Urban Welfare Committee in Warsaw was established, gradually replacing earlier organizations.
It consisted of four divisions: Children and Youth, Sanitation and Hygiene, Social Work and Labour Assistance and Economic Assistance.
Jews also founded a large number of house committees bringing together residents to deal with provisioning and cultural matters. Committees also looked after old people's homes, orphanages, and shelters.
A network of soup kitchens was also set up to feed the hungry. In an effort to preserve humanitarian appearances, the occupiers gave permission to conduct a feeding campaign whose real purpose was to curb smuggling.
After the defeat of the uprising, the Germans set up a concentration camp in the ruins of the ghetto. Its inmates had to demolish what remained of the houses, remove rubble, and search cellars for any valuables.
Polish political prisoners and Jews dragged out of makeshift hiding places were also executed in the ghetto. Only a handful of people survived in the ruins until the end of the war.
But the memory of the tragedy of the Warsaw ghetto was not buried for good. Thanks to the Oneg Shabbat (Hebrew for "Joy of the Sabbath"), a secret organization headed by the eminent historian and educator Emanuel Ringelblum, it was possible to create an archive of the dying city.
The Oneg Shabbat collected documents pertaining to daily life in the ghetto: private journals, literary works, songs, newspapers, drawings, letters, the accounts of deportees and fugitives from the camps, and even candy wrappers.
The organization also commissioned sociological and economic studies. Part of the Ringelblum Archive, hidden in the cellars at 68 Nowolipki Street, was unearthed after the war.
These priceless documents are currently in the collection of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.
Read About Warsaw Uprising
Survived St. Augustine's Church
After the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the German destroyed the Ghetto systematically, but there are a few points, where you can see survived parts of the wall and ghetto buildings.
One of the most important buildings which survived the destruction is the St. Augustine's Church located at ul. Nowolipki 18.
The church was within the Ghetto bounds and despite the official closure of the church, Father Franciszek Garncarek and vicar Leon Więckowicz continued to live there.
They took part in smuggling Jews, with a focus on Jewish converts to Catholicism, out of the ghetto.
Father Garncarek was shot on the steps of a church outside the ghetto on 20 December 1943. Więckowicz was arrested on 3 December 1942 and deported to the Gross-Rosen concentration camp, where he died on 4 August 1944.
As the church was serving as a warehouse in which the German was storing the stolen Jew's property and it was also used as a watch-house, the church survived the destruction.
Ghetto Survived St. Augustine's Church
Later the Warsaw Ghetto survived church was converted into a stable and during the Warsaw Uprising, the church tower was a vantage point and German machine gun nest.
Finally, the church was damaged on the 5th of August during the assault on the nearby Gesiowka prison by soldiers of Battalion Zośka and after the uprising the German set fire on the roof, burning a considerable amount of the church.
A plan to blow up the Ghetto Church was not put into action. After the war, the Ghetto Church was reconstructed.
Warsaw Ghetto Boundary Markers
The Warsaw Ghetto boundary markers are memorial plaques and boundary lines that mark the maximum perimeter of the former ghetto established by the Germans in 1940 in occupied Warsaw.
In order to preserve the memory of the perished Jewish quarter, at the most characteristic points (22 sites) on the former ghetto boundaries, special markers were erected between 2008 and 2010.
Each Marker consists of three elements:
- Bronze plaque with a small map, representing the Warsaw Ghetto farthest borders and a pin indicating the exact position.
- Acrylic Glass plague with information in Polish and English about this specific point.
- Cement strips with a sign: «MUR GETTA 1940 / GHETTO WALL 1943»
Source - Ghetto Boundary Markers: «https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_boundary_markers»
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In the Nazi machinery of death, the ghetto became the lobby of the Final Solution.
Despite the terror, hunger, and diseases, the residents of the closed quarter managed to continue various types of activities, both in the realm of culture, science as well as underground political activity.
Their daily determination to create a social framework that would allow them to preserve the vestiges of a dignified life is a unique testimony of their courage and will to fight.
The aim of the Warsaw Ghetto Museum created in 2018 is to disseminate knowledge about all those who lived, suffered and perished in the ghetto. The future museum will be housed in the revitalized Bersohn and Bauman Children's Hospital at 60 Sienna Street.
During the German occupation, research on hunger disease was conducted at this site, and just after the war part of the Ringelblum Archive was kept there.
The museum is looking for witnesses of history who could share their stories both with regard to the hospital and the ghetto. Also collecting mementos related to the Warsaw ghetto, its residents, or other ghettos in occupied Poland.
Anybody who is willing to contribute to the creation of the core exhibition in this manner can contact the museum's temporary office at 39 Zielna Street (the PASTA building).
End of the Sad History of the Warsaw Ghetto!
History of Warsaw Ghetto Remains Forever!
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